標準工時落空 移工與本地工人的漫長路(下)

標準工時落空 移工與本地工人的漫長路(下)
Standard working hours came into nothing: A long way for migrant and local workers (Part 2)

文:車
by chelsea

當朝九晚五已成奢望,政府卻以合約工時敷衍打工仔的辛酸。工作侵蝕生活,對於工作場所即日常起居的移民家務工來說,又意味什麼?小記與兩位移工組織的幹事談過,他(她)們不約而同地流露:我們與本地工人一起爭取。

When a nine-to-five job becomes a luxury, the government keeps ignoring workers’ suffer by implementing the contract working hours as a fudge. Work erodes life, what does it mean to migrant domestic workers (MDWs) whose working place is exactly their living place? I talked with two members of migrant workers’ organizations, and they coincidentally said: we are fighting together with local workers.

 

勞工待遇惡劣,民主從何談起?

With poor labour treatment, democracy starts nowhere

(When labour rights are abused, peoples’ democratic rights got eroded)

 

見到Shiella時,是在七一遊行。香港亞洲家務工工會聯會(FADWU)橙色的橫額下,她和姊妹的一身黃衣和藍色頭巾在無盡頭的軒尼斯道上格外繽紛。進步家務工工會—香港(Progressive Labour Union of Domestic Workers-Hong Kong, PLU)是FADWU的一個屬會,成員是來自不同種族的在港家務工。來自菲律賓的Shiella告訴我,PLU每年都動員大家參加七一遊行,支持本地人爭取「真民主」(genuine democracy)。但什麼是「真」?

I saw Shiella during 1st July protest. Under the orange banner of Hong Kong Federation of Asian Domestic Workers Unions (FADWU), sisters’ yellow T-shirts and blue headcloth add colors to the endless Hennessey Road. Progressive Labour Union of Domestic Workers-Hong Kong (PLU) is an affiliate of FADWU, with MDWs from different nationalities. Shiella comes from Philippines, and she told me PLU has mobilized members to join 1st July protest every year for supporting the locals to fight for genuine democracy. But what is “genuine”?

 

我們談起合約工時。Shiella的笑裡暗含無奈:「6月20日,我們出席標準工時委員會的立法會會議,並深表失望。他們(政府)再一次排斥移民家務工,甚至(月入超過1.1萬的)本地工人。這對基層根本沒有保障。」她說,若不是非常富有,家務工僱主也是工人,也需要標準工時。

We started talking about contract working hours. Shiella smiled with toughness, ‘On 20th June, we attended the (Standard Working Hours) Committee’s meeting in LegCo. We really show our disappointment. They again excluded MDWs and even the locals (who earn more than 11,000 a month). There is no protection for those grassroots.’ She said, employers of domestic workers are also workers unless they are very rich, they also need standard working hours.

 

委員會面對姊妹的質疑時回應,香港有很多友善的僱主,不需要立法規管。Shiella即時反駁,「那為什麼還有這麼多違約(或違法)的情況?」小記心想,政府果然只會將問題簡化為本地僱主與移民家務工之間的矛盾。如果問下去,Shiella的那句反駁是在質疑,現行制度是否允許「好僱主/移民家務工」的出現?若「好」僱主意味著讓移民家務工不用過勞工作,剩下的「家務」誰做?有哪些不是家務?我們的社會又能給予家庭照顧者多少支持?同樣,如果「好」移民家務工是指即使默默工作至過勞也不吭聲,那豈不是容許剝削、奴隸制的發生?說到底,雙方現在都無從選擇,與品格無關。

The Committee replied to sisters’ question, saying that since there were a lot of friendly employers in Hong Kong, it was not necessary to legalize regulation. Shiella reputed, ‘Why there are still violation of contract (or law)?’ I found it quite consistent with governmental logic: to simplify the question into conflicts between employers and MDWs. What Shiella asked, however, was whether the exiting institution allows employers or workers to be “good”. If “good” employers are those who will not let workers overwork, who will do the remaining “household”? What is not household at all? Has our society provided any support to family caretakers? Similarly, if we regard “good” workers as those who overwork without complaining, we are actually allowing exploitation and slavery. In the end, both of them have no choice, and characters are totally irrelevant.

 

而實際上,移民家務工長工時的狀況嚴峻。PLU的調查顯示,移民家務工每天工作至少16小時,從早上5點半到晚上11、12點,一個禮拜做六天,有些甚至在休息日外出前或回家後仍要工作。「(以致於有時)我們沒辦法百分百按僱主的要求工作……一個長時間運作的機器也會過熱吧……我們也是人,像政府(官員)一樣。為何他們有工作時間,我們沒有?」

However, the fact is that MDWs are experiencing serious long working hours. PLU’s investigation shows that MDWs work at least 16 hours every day, from 5:30-23:30 or 00:30 for 6 days a week. Some of them even have to work on rest days before going out or after coming home. ‘(It’s so that sometimes) we cannot perform 100% as our employers told us…a machine will get overheated if you operate it for a long time…We are also human beings, like the government (officers). The government need (have) working time, why MDWs don’t?’

 

Shiella也談之前很多人掛在嘴邊的香港普選,說菲律賓的選舉是怎樣、在外打工的移民工如何投票。遊行隊伍的尾巴從FADWU的街站走過,姊妹和支援者聚在一起喊口號:「我們要什麼?民主!」草根的民主,要趕在被工作壓得不得動彈之前呼喊出來、交相呼應並持續實踐,以此展現民主的真實的型態—-多元結聚,談何容易?

Shiella also mentioned universal suffrage, which was frequently discussed among many people. She told me how the election in Philippines was, and how migrant workers voted during election. The end of march passed by FADWU’s street station, sisters and supporters shouted the slogans out: ‘What do we want? Democracy!’ Democracy of grassroots has to be shouted out, echoed and acted upon before work exhausted our last energy, through which the state of unity in diversity of authentic democracy could be shown.  It’s never an easy journey.

 

看多點 More information:

  1. AMCB就標準工時委員會報告向立法會人力事務委員會提交的聲明Submission to the Panel on Manpower Panel of the Hong Kong Legislative Council on the report of the Standard Working Hours Committee: http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr16-17/english/panels/mp/papers/mp20170620cb2-1678-7-e.pdf
  2. FADWU外國家務工工時實施方案Standard Working Hours Regulation on domestic work abroad: https://www.facebook.com/HKFADWU/posts/1399666596765901
  3. 惟工新聞,〈政府宣佈標準工時玩完 合約工時不涵蓋八成僱員 月入逾1.1萬出局〉Workers News on contract hours: http://wknews.org/node/1476

 

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